Food & Beverage of the World
Explanations of Classic Food Dishes, and the Ingredients, also how Beverages are made, from Wine, Beer to Spirits etc.
One Pan Baked Salmon And Vegetables
Salmon and Veggies
- 12-16 oz salmon cut into 4 fillets see notes
- 1 zucchini
- 1 red and yellow pepper each
- 1 medium onion
- 1 tsp Italian seasonings
- 1 tsp paprika
- 1 tsp garlic powder
- salt and pepper
- 1 tbsp olive oil divided
- 2-3 tbsp fresh parsley finely chopped
- 1 lemon cut into wedges or slices
Preheat oven to 400F.
In a small bowl mix Italian seasoning, paprika, garlic powder, salt, and pepper.
Cut zucchini, peppers, and onion into 1/2" cubes. Place all vegetables on the baking sheet.
Add half the spice mixture, 1/2 tbsp olive oil (reserve remaining oil and spices for the salmon) and mix thoroughly to coat all the vegetables. Evenly spread the veggies on the baking sheet pan and cook the vegetables in the oven for 10 min.
Remove the pan and make space for the salmon fillets. Rub remaining spice mixture on the salmon fillets and place them in the gap among the vegetables. Drizzle remaining oil on the salmon.
Return the pan to oven and cook for 5-8 min or until salmon is well done.
Garnish with fresh parsley and lemon slices.
- If you are using frozen salmon then make sure to thaw it at room temperature before using.
- You can serve this dish on the side of pasta or brown rice or quinoa.
- To get a nice brown crust on the salmon and vegetables, turn on broil mode for 2-3 min after baking timer is over.
Marinated Fish-Fillets, dipped in “Orly-Dough” and deep fried, Served with Tomato sauce and Parsley fries.
À l’Orly is a French cooking term used to describe a preparation method usually used with fish fillets. The fish is usually a white fish such as sole, perch or cod.
The fillets are skinned, battered and deep fried.
The usual accompaniment on the side is a tomato sauce.
The dish is served hot.
Orly is a suburb of Paris, in the south of the city. The Paris Orly airport is located there, opened in 1932.
CooksInfo has been unable to identify the association between Orly and tomatoes.
Could be: Chianti-Classico, Bordeaux etc.
Duck confit (French: confit de canard [kɔ̃.fi d(ə) ka.naʁ]) is a French dish made with the whole duck. In Gascony, according to the families perpetuating the tradition of duck confit, all the pieces of duck are used to produce the meal. Each part can have a specific destination in traditional cooking, the neck being used for example in an invigorating soup, the garbure. Duck confit is considered one of the finest French dishes.
While it is made across France, it is seen as a specialty of Gascony. The confit is prepared in a centuries-old process of preservation that consists of salt curing a piece of meat (generally goose, duck, or pork) and then cooking it in its own fat.
To prepare a confit, the meat is rubbed with salt, garlic, and sometimes herbs such as thyme, then covered and refrigerated for up to 36 hours. Salt-curing the meat acts as a preservative.
Prior to cooking, the spices are rinsed from the meat, which is then patted dry. The meat is placed in a cooking dish deep enough to contain the meat and the rendered fat, and placed in an oven at a low temperature (76 – 135 degrees Celsius/170 – 275 Fahrenheit). The meat is slowly poached at least until cooked, or until meltingly tender, generally four to ten hours.
The meat and fat are then removed from the oven and left to cool. When cool, the meat can be transferred to a canning jar or other container and completely submerged in the fat. A sealed jar of duck confit may be kept in the refrigerator for up to six months, or several weeks if kept in a reusable plastic container. To maximize preservation if canning, the fat should top the meat by at least one inch. The cooking fat acts as both a seal and preservative and results in a very rich taste. Skipping the salt curing stage greatly reduces the shelf life of the confit.
Confit is also sold in cans, which can be kept for several years. The flavourful fat from the confit may also be used in many other ways, as a frying medium for sautéed vegetables (e.g., green beans and garlic, wild or cultivated mushrooms), savory toasts, scrambled eggs or omelettes, and as an addition to shortcrust pastry for tarts and quiches.
A classic recipe is to fry or grill the legs in a bit of the fat until they are well-browned and crisp, and use more of the fat to roast some potatoes and garlic as an accompaniment. The potatoes roasted in duck fat to accompany the crisped-up confit is called pommes de terre à la sarladaise. Another accompaniment is red cabbage slow-braised with apples and red wine.
The “Kitchens Diamond” or also
“The Worlds most expensive Vegetable”.
Truffles are a subterranean fungi that flourish via a symbiotic relationship with the roots of certain trees, e.g., beech, hazel, oak, etc. They are not mushrooms which are a completely different fungi. They are also not to be confused with the chocolate confection that bears the same name. Truffles are irregularly spherical in shape, and vary in size from a walnut to a baseball. There are hundreds of varieties found the world over, but only a handful are highly prized as food. Indeed, the famous French gastronome Brillat-Savarin (1755-1826), dubbed these precious and extremely costly comestibles the "Diamonds of the Kitchen." Truffles were relished by the ancient Greeks and Romans and were thought to be an aphrodisiac. Louis XIV and Napoleon were enthusiastically fond of them. They are utilized in various European cuisines, especially French and Italian. Extravagantly priced, the average American will only encounter them at the most luxurious restaurants.
A “Young Bordeaux”. With Nice Acidity, and NOT to Fruity.
Barbera d'Alba is a key DOC of Piedmont, north-western Italy, famed for its tangy, cherry-like red wines made from Barbera grapes.
Barbera (like so many Italian wine grape varieties) has ancient origins, although it has only been traceably documented since the 17th century. It was first cited in an official document in 1798, by Count Giuseppe Nuvolone-Pergamo of Scandaluzzo, deputy director of the Società Agraria di Torino (Agrarian Society of Turin). The count is credited with creating the first definitive list of Piedmont's wine grape varieties. Barbera-based wines were well regarded even then, for their rustic yet generous character. They and were a favorite among Savoyard army officers, who considered the wine a "sincere companion", which helped them maintain their courage in battle.
You always serve from the Right side.
It makes it easier for everybody.
Generally speaking, when your servers are bringing drinks to the table, have them handle the glasses from the bottom.
Tell servers never to put their hands and fingers near the lip of the glass. Why? Your customer doesn’t want your server’s germs near where they’re putting their lips. As many times as they wash their hands, they’re sure to be carrying bacteria around.
Always handle glassware by the stems, handles, or the bottom of the glass.
When serving the table, follow the general rules of etiquette. Serve the guest of honor, if known, and women first, followed by the men and children. If there are elderly people at the table, serve them at the beginning as well.
Serve your guests from his or her right side, and then proceed around the table in order of seating arrangement.
Tell servers to set the glass down on a coaster or napkin. If the table has a cloth, they set the drinks on it.
You should remove the glasses when they’re empty, so you’re not wasting your diner’s money. When refilling water or wine glasses, refill them without touching the glass.
If your server can’t reach the glass, they should ask the guest to move the glass a bit closer.
When refilling soda, beer, or a cocktail, remove the empty glass, then deliver a new drink.
When it comes to serving wine, you’ll want to train your staff in some finer details.
First, when pouring wine at the table, always use a cloth napkin to wipe the excess drips from the mouth of the bottle.
You also want to let the guest sniff the wine and give their consent before pouring.
Never hold the wine glass by the bowl. Always hold it at the stem. The wine will stay cooler for a longer time if the heat from your hand isn’t pressing against the glass.
-Vino Nobile di Montepulciano. etc.
A Chianti wine is any wine produced in the Chianti region of central Tuscany. It was historically associated with a squat bottle enclosed in a straw basket, called a fiasco. However, the fiasco is only used by a few makers of the wine as most Chianti is now bottled in more standard shaped wine bottles.
Vino Nobile di Montepulciano
Vino Nobile di Montepulciano is a red wine with a Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita status produced in the vineyards surrounding the town of Montepulciano, Italy. The wine is made primarily from the Sangiovese grape varietal (known locally as Prugnolo gentile) (minimum 70%), blended with Canaiolo Nero (10%–20%) and small amounts of other local varieties such as Mammolo. The wine is aged for 2 years (at least 1 year in oak barrels); three years if it is a riserva. The wine should not be confused with Montepulciano d'Abruzzo, a red wine made from the Montepulciano grape in the Abruzzo region of east-central Italy.
- Yield:serves 4
- Active time: 45 minutes
- Total time:3 hours 45 minutes
- 1 cow or veal tongue, about 1 1/2 pounds
- 2 medium onions, peel on
- Kosher salt and freshly ground black pepper
- 2 tablespoons vegetable or canola oil
- 1 slice rustic bread, crust removed, torn into small pieces (about 1/4 cup)
- 3 1/2 tablespoons red wine vinegar
- 2 tablespoons drained capers, finely chopped
- 4 anchovy fillets, minced
- 2 medium garlic cloves, minced or grated with a microplane grater (about 2 teaspoons)
- 1 tablespoon Dijon mustard
- 1/4 cup olive oil
- 3 tablespoons minced tarragon or parsley leaves, or a mix
- 1 boiled egg, yolk and white separated
- 2 baguettes, or 8 slices of bread
- 1/4 cup prepared horseradish
- Arugula, watercress, or some kind of bitter green
Place tongue in a medium saucepan. Split one onion in half and add to pot. Add cold water to cover and season generously with salt. Place on a burner over high heat. Bring to a boil, then reduce heat to lowest setting. Cover and cook until completely tender, about 2 1/2 hours, topping up with extra water if necessary. Allow to cool until cool enough to handle.
Transfer tongue to cutting board and discard cooking liquid (or save, if desired). Carefully peel outer membrane off of tongue and discard. Slice tongue into 1/2 inch slabs.
Heat two tablespoons oil over high heat until shimmering. Add tongue and cook without moving until well browned on first side, about 3 minutes. Flip slabs of tongue and cook without moving until browned on second side. Alternatively, brush slices of tongue with oil and grill on both sides until well browned and crispy, about 5 minutes per side over moderate heat. Season to taste with salt and pepper and set aside.
To make the sauce, soak the bread in the vinegar, then break up with a fork until it is mashed. Add capers, anchovy, garlic, mustard, and olive oil and mix well. Add the minced tarragon or parsley. Crumble the yolk into the sauce. Dice the egg white, then add it to the sauce. Add salt and pepper to taste.
To assemble sandwiches, spread a few spoonfuls of sauce on the bottom slices of bread, and horseradish on the top slice. Add the greens, then tongue to the bottom slice. Close sandwiches and serve immediately.
Should do the Trick, and there
Are a lot of other Choices of Course.
Bouillabaisse (French pronunciation: [bu.ja.bɛːs]; Occitan: bolhabaissa [ˌbuʎaˈβajsɔ / ˌbujaˈbajsɔ]) is a traditional Provençal fish stew originating from the port city of Marseille. The French and English form bouillabaisse comes from the Provençal Occitan word bolhabaissa, a compound that consists of the two verbs bolhir (to boil) and abaissar (to reduce heat, i.e., simmer).
Bouillabaisse was originally a stew made by Marseille fishermen using the bony rockfish which they were unable to sell to restaurants or markets. There are at least three kinds of fish in a traditional bouillabaisse: typically red rascasse (Scorpaena scrofa); sea robin; and European conger. It can also include gilt-head bream, turbot, monkfish, mullet, or European hake. It usually also includes shellfish and other seafood such as sea urchins, mussels, velvet crabs, spider crab or octopus. More expensive versions may add langoustine (Norway lobster), though this was not part of the traditional dish made by Marseille fishermen. Vegetables such as leeks, onions, tomatoes, celery, and potatoes are simmered together with the broth and served with the fish. The broth is traditionally served with a rouille, a mayonnaise made of olive oil, garlic, saffron, and cayenne pepper on grilled slices of bread.
What makes a bouillabaisse different from other fish soups is the selection of Provençal herbs and spices in the broth; the use of bony local Mediterranean fish; the way the fish are added one at a time, and brought to a boil; and the method of serving. In Marseille, the broth is served first in a soup plate with slices of bread and rouille, then the fish is served separately on a large platter (see image at right); or, more simply, as Julia Child suggests, the fish and broth are brought to the table separately and served together in large soup plates.
The Rhône wine region in Southern France is situated in the Rhône valley and produces numerous wines under various Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) designations. The region's major appellation in production volume is Côtes du Rhône AOC.
The Rhône is generally divided into two sub-regions with distinct vinicultural traditions, the Northern Rhône (referred to in French as Rhône septentrional) and the Southern Rhône (in French Rhône méridional). The northern sub-region produces red wines from the Syrah grape, sometimes blended with white wine grapes, and white wines from Marsanne, Roussanne and Viognier grapes. The southern sub-region produces an array of red, white and rosé wines, often blends of several grapes such as in Châteauneuf-du-Pape.
Wines from Provence.
Provence (Provençal) wine comes from the French wine-producing region of Provence in southeast France. The Romans called the area provincia nostra ("our province"), giving the region its name. Just south of the Alps, it was the first Roman province outside Italy.
Wine has been made in this region for at least 2,600 years, ever since the ancient Greeks founded the city of Marseille in 600 BC. Throughout the region's history, viticulture and winemaking have been influenced by the cultures that have been present in Provence, which include the Ancient Greeks, Romans, Gauls, Catalans and Savoyards. These diverse groups introduced a large variety of grapes to the region, including grape varieties of Greek and Roman origin as well as Spanish, Italian and traditional French wine grapes.
Today the region is known predominantly for its rosé wine, though wine critics such as Tom Stevenson believe that region's best wines are the spicy, full-flavoured red wines. Rosé wine currently accounts for more than half of the production of Provençal wine, with red wine accounting for about a third of the region's production. White wine is also produced in small quantities throughout the region with the Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) region of Cassis specializing in white wine production. The Côtes de Provence is the largest AOC followed by the Coteaux d'Aix-en-Provence. The Bandol region near Toulon is one of the more internationally recognized Provençal wine regions.
Wines from Australia
The Australian wine industry is the world's fifth largest exporter of wine with approximately 780 million litres a year to the international export market with only about 40% of production consumed domestically. The wine industry is a significant contributor to the Australian economy through production, employment, export and tourism.
There is a $2.8 billion domestic market for Australian wines, with Australians consuming over 530 million litres annually with a per capita consumption of about 30 litres – 50% white table wine, 35% red table wine. Norfolk Islanders are the second biggest per capita wine consumers in the world with 54 litres. Only 16.6% of wine sold domestically is imported.
Wine is produced in every state, with more than 60 designated wine regions totalling approximately 160,000 hectares; however Australia's wine regions are mainly in the southern, cooler parts of the country, with vineyards located in South Australia, New South Wales, Victoria, Western Australia, Tasmania and Queensland. The wine regions in each of these states produce different wine varieties and styles that take advantage of the particular Terroir such as: climatic differences, topography and soil types. The major varieties are predominantly Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Merlot, Semillon, Pinot noir, Riesling, and Sauvignon blanc. Wines are often labelled with the name of their grape variety, which must constitute at least 85 percent of the wine.
Wines from New-Zealand
New Zealand wine is produced in several mostly maritime, cool climate winegrowing regions of New Zealand, an island country in the South Pacific Ocean. Like many other New World wines, it is usually produced and labelled as single varietal wines, or if blended the varietal components are listed on the label. New Zealand is famous for its Marlborough Sauvignon Blanc, and more recently its dense, concentrated Pinot Noir from Marlborough, Martinborough and Central Otago.
While New Zealand wine traces its history to the 19th century, the modern wine industry in New Zealand began in the mid-20th century and expanded rapidly in the early 21st century, averaging 17% per annum in the first two decades. In 2017, New Zealand produced 285 million litres from 37,129 hectares (91,750 acres) of vineyard area, about three-quarters of which is dedicated to Sauvignon Blanc. Nearly 90% of total production is exported, chiefly to the United States, Britain and Australia, reaching a record NZ$1.66 billion in export revenue in 2017. In each of the previous 10 years, New Zealanders consumed a fairly constant 20 litres of wine per adult, about a third of which was imported from other countries, mainly Australia
Lamb, hogget and mutton are the meat of domestic sheep at different ages in its life. In general, a sheep in its first year is called a lamb, and its meat is also called lamb. The meat of a juvenile sheep older than one year is hogget; outside the United States this is also a term for the living animal.
If the word Chardonnay evokes images of fat, buttery, oaky white wines, Chablis will completely throw you for a loop. Always made entirely from the Chardonnay grape, Chablis is one of the most austere wines in the world, due to its cool Burgundian climate and famed limestone soils. It can also be one of the world’s most ageable and complex wines, making it one of the wine world’s heavy hitters.
-Sangiovese or Rosso di Montalcino.
In culinary terms, white meat is meat which is pale in color before and after cooking. A common example of white meat is the lighter-colored meat of poultry (light meat), coming from the breast, as contrasted with dark meat from the legs. Poultry white ("light") meat is made up of fast-twitch muscle fibres, while red ("dark") meat is made up of muscles with fibres that are slow-twitch. In traditional gastronomy, white meat also includes rabbit, the flesh of milk-fed young mammals (in particular veal and lamb), and pork.
In nutritional studies however, white meat includes poultry and fish, but excludes all mammal flesh, which is considered red meat. The United States Department of Agriculture classifies meats as red if the myoglobin level is higher than 65%. This categorization is controversial as some types of fish, such as tuna, are red when raw and turn white when cooked; similarly, certain types of poultry that are sometimes grouped as white meat are actually red when raw, such as duck and goose.
Sangiovese or Rosso di Montalcino.
Risotto is a northern Italian rice dish cooked with broth until it reaches a creamy consistency. The broth can be derived from meat, fish, or vegetables. Many types of risotto contain butter, onion, white wine, and parmesan cheese. It is one of the most common ways of cooking rice in Italy.
In the Pacific North West.
In Finger Lakes.
The history of cider in the United States is very closely tied to the history of apple growing in the country. Most of the 17th- and 18th-century emigrants to America from the British Isles drank hard cider and its variants: water was not a trusted source of hydration and so beer, ale, fruit brandy, and cider were used as more sanitary substitutes. Apples were one of the earliest known crops in the English-speaking New World; ships' manifests show young saplings being carefully planted in barrels and many hopeful farmers bringing bags of seed with them, with the first settlers headed to what is now the Southeast. Within thirty-five years of the settlement of Jamestown in 1607, the land was put to the plow to grow tobacco which provided a source of revenue for the colonists and made British settlement a success in the New World after several failed attempts. However, other edible cash crops were planted, like rice, maize, and apples, since such would have had value in the markets of growing cities like London, Edinburgh, Dublin, and Cardiff.
The earliest known provision for cider making is believed to have been carried on the Mayflower itself in 1620. Halfway through the journey, the ship was caught in a storm and one of its beams cracked badly enough to warrant the consideration of turning back to England. "The great iron screw", taken from a cider press, helped brace the beam to keep the ship from breaking up and did it long enough to make it to the New World. Nine days after the Puritans landed (and perhaps in great thanks for having survived the journey at all) a man by the name of William Blackstone planted the first apple trees in the New England colonies. The first recorded shipment of honeybees to America, important for the pollination of apples, is recorded in 1622 in Virginia. In New England, John Winthrop, governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1632, recorded his tenants paying their rent on Governor's Island in two bushels of apples a year. In 1634 Lord Baltimore instructed settlers of the new colony of Maryland to carry across the sea "kernalls of peares and apples, especially of Pipins, Pearemains, and Deesons for maykinge thereafter of Cider and Perry."
There are records of at least one English apple cultivar used for cider and cooking, Catshead, being grown on Berkeley Hundred Plantation in Virginia around this time; later introductions from the UK would have included Foxwhelp, Redstreak, and the extinct Costard. Other records from the Tidewater South show wealthier farmers and plantation owners arranging for the import of French apple varieties, such as Calville Blanc, Pomme d'Api, and Court Pendu Plat, likely in part due to qualities they wanted to improve in the stock available and the difficulty there was in keeping early breed-stock alive. Unbeknownst to the colonists leaving for the New World, they faced an uphill battle in planting some of their favorite foods, including apples. None of the colonists knew that the honeybee is not a native insect to America and knew absolutely nothing about the husbandry of orchard mason bees, something nobody would put to use until three centuries later. In Europe, honeybees were and still are the main means of pollination for apples, cherries, and pears, and thus some of the earliest pleas for new supplies sent home to Britain by Jamestown colonists were for beehives. Only about 20% of apple trees produced from apple seeds shall grow a fruit comparable to the parent plant, while about 60% will be passable for consumption and the remaining 20% will be "crab apples" unfit for most human tastes. and the records of all the thirteen colonies indicate that the favored method of propagation from 1607-1737 was not grafting since this method was expensive and the reserve of the wealthy using crabapple rootstock.
Additionally, the businesses of diseases, pests, and temperature all presented challenges to growing in Eastern America. Normally tent caterpillars are parasites to Southern crab apple trees, black cherry trees, chokecherries, beach plums, and the sweet crabapple, members of the family Rosaceae native to the Eastern United States. They made no distinction between these and the European derived young apple, cherry, quince, plum, and pear trees the colonists had, which had evolved no defense mechanism against moth larvae that would form large silk bags on the branches and destroy the tree by eating the leaves. Fungi like cedar-apple rust destroyed trees' abilities to produce fruit, since it infects the buds they grow, making them sterile. In the case of the British or French derived apples, it proved disastrous since unlike native Malus species it had no immunity and would eventually die, covered in cankers.
In 17th century Britain, orchards had been kept in a relatively open area for generations as most of the forest had been already cleared. But in America, leaving the trees without a surrounding fence in the open resulted in attracting nearby populations of black bears, woodchucks, skunks, raccoons, elk, and deer looking for food. The need for apple cultivars which would have a much higher yield of apples at harvest time proved to be paramount so that the entire crop would not be lost to animals, something that is still practiced today but began in colonial times. The climate of the American Southeast also had more extremes, where temperatures would easily exceed 26 °C in summer but fall below 3 °C in winter. Most of the cider, cooking, and dessert apples brought from the oceanic climate of Northwest Europe were not bred for sweltering humidity or late season frosts; later in the North settlers from the British Isles had to adapt many of their husbandry practices as well because winter temperatures were bone chillingly cold with long snowy winters and the first frost coming much earlier. In the South, despite the longer growing season, it was a great task just to get apples and pears to live long enough to bear fruit, let alone make cider or perry, and whatever cider they did produce was likely sour and of poor quality.
The earliest known full blown successful orchard in America began in Massachusetts Bay Colony near what is today modern Boston. New England was more successful in producing the first viable apples as evidenced by the fact that the oldest known and named apple varieties come from Massachusetts Bay Colony, Plymouth Colony, and Providence Plantation: Roxbury Russet in 1634, Hightop Sweet by 1630, and Rhode Island Greening in 1650, all of which still survive and are still used for cidermaking and baking of pies. John Endicott, another New Englander, began one of the first known nurseries for apples and pears, and in 1648 he is recorded as selling 500 young trees to a William Trask, for which he received 250 acres of land; approximately 20 years earlier it is believed that he planted a garden full of fruits selected for alcohol production, near what is present day Salem, Massachusetts of which one example pear tree still survives as evidence. Later as his trees matured he began to sell them to new settlers and their bounty of cider and perry to local taverns, beginning one of the earliest examples of large scale propagation in the New World of apples and cider. By the 1660s regulations on the consumption and distribution of alcohol were being put into place, and fines were being levied for drunkenness on hard cider in Massachusetts Bay Colony, in Maryland, and Virginia among other places, going by the court records. In 1676, Nicholas Spencer, secretary of the Virginia House of Burgesses, speculated on the cause of the riots of the past two years, as keeping the law proved difficult: "All plantations flowing with syder, soe unripe drank by our licentious inhabitants, that they allow no tyme for its fermentation but in their braines."
The Endicott Fruit Tree is a pear tree that was planted in the 1630s. It is the oldest living cultivated fruit tree in North America. Local law stipulates that it must remain undisturbed and is the town's prized possession, appearing on its seal. The Endicott family was a very prominent one that played a role in dispersing cider and perry apples right through the nineteenth century. The USDA has taken cuttings to examine it for its longevity and possibly plant its clones so the DNA may live on after the tree dies; the cultivar itself is quite rare.
As time passed, English settlers began coming from different regions, which ones depending on which colony they chose to settle in, but most of them came from areas with long established traditions of apple growing, including the West Midlands, the West Country (largely these two settled in the South), the Channel Islands (in New Jersey), the Home Counties (New York), and East Anglia (New England). Other settlers came from Sweden, the Highlands of Scotland, Wales, the Netherlands, Western France, the Irish province of Ulster, and (by the end of the 17th century) Southwest Germany and parts of Switzerland, with all of the above settling down on farms and requiring apples that would keep well, could be bartered as payment. In 1682, Governor Carteret of New Jersey wrote, "At Newark is made great quantities of syder, exseeding any that wee have in New England, Rhode Island, or Long Island", significant because colonial New Jersey had a colorful mix of British, Swedish, Dutch, and French Huguenots; a thousand hogsheads were filled that year in Newark, or 238, 481 liters in modern measurement. Even those settlers, such as Germans and Dutch, who did not come from cultures that attached value to alcohol made from apples found that they could sell more of their crop by breeding apples that their neighbors would have wanted. They thus started a trend and bred versatile apples that would go well with a joint of pork, could be peeled and baked in a pie or rendered into apple butter, but also had enough juice to ferment into alcohol and could be pressed into cider come autumn harvest. Further, unbeknownst to the British settlers of central colonies (Pennsylvania especially) and Appalachia, it is highly likely some of the cultivars brought by Germans introduced genetics that were much hardier to cold weather than the stock they possessed as evidenced by Germany's natural terrain: German weather was back then and still is today often much more snowy than the British Isles, and areas like Hesse, Thuringia, and Mecklenburg, places of origin for German-speaking settlers in the colonies, all have either alpine influenced climates or ones heavily influenced by cold arctic air coming off the Baltic Sea in winter. The crossbreeding of these on Scottish, English, and Irish farmer's lands via pollination introduced genetics that were very valuable to climates like Southern Appalachia, which is a mountainous region and in winter gets several feet of snow even in the present day, or Pennsylvania, where colonists had to race the clock to harvest apples in autumn and get them in storage to survive winter. (Swedish settlers in Delaware, New York. and New Jersey unwittingly repeated the process with their introductions from their arctic homeland and through trade with other ethnic groups, notably the Dutch and Englishmen.) The total result was a rather motley and bizarre foundation stock from all over Northern Europe, and American apples, many of them chance seedlings and strange breeds of mixed provenance, grew into varieties like the Harrison Cider Apple, Rambo, Black Gilliflower, Newtown Pippin, Green Cheese, and Baldwin. Many of these older apples are still used in cookery and in cider making even in the present day.
By the 18th century apple cider was a staple at every family table; at harvest many apples were pressed into cider and the remainder was placed carefully into barrels to store through winter for eating or replenishing supply. Pehr Kalm, a Swedish naturalist, noted in his travels in 1749 that nearly every home on Staten Island (now a part of modern New York City) had a small orchard attached and in the colonial capital, Albany, apples were being pressed for cider to be exported south to New York City By 1775, one in ten New England families, most of them farmers, had a cider mill on the property. In one of his letters to his wife Abigail, John Adams complained explicitly about the quality of Philadelphia alcohols and being homesick for her cider. Thomas Jefferson grew several varieties of apple at his home in Virginia and there are records of his wife Martha Jefferson overseeing their harvest and brewing while she was mistress of the plantation. Ciderkin, a slightly alcoholic beverage made from cider pomace, could also be found on colonial tables, and was often served for breakfast. Applejack, made in the North, was made in a very similar manner to Canadian ice cider every winter and likely would have been familiar to Mrs. Adams as an alternate means to concentrate alcohol when it was far too cold outside to bring out the cider press. The taste for hard cider continued into the 19th century in pockets of the East Coast, but with the double blow of immigration from Central and Eastern Europe, where lager beer is the traditional staple, and the later advent of Prohibition hard cider manufacturing collapsed and did not recover after the ban on alcohol was lifted. Temperance fanatics burned or uprooted the orchards and wrought havoc on farms to the point that only dessert or cooking apples escaped the axe or torch; only a small number of cider apple trees survived on farmland abandoned before the 1920s and in the present day are only now being found by pomologists.
It is only in recent years that interest has been revived in hard cider. Surviving heirloom varieties that would have had a role in the old orchards have been carefully catalogued and others have been put up for sale at city farmer's markets, as well as sold by the bushel to businesses wanting to make their own labels. On the East Coast, many have been taking cuttings of trees planted a hundred years ago and blending them experimentally into new brews, with California and the Great Lakes States following suit. Business is currently booming, even outselling the craft beer movement and though it is currently only one percent of the alcoholic beverage market it has skyrocketed and is projected to keep growing. Larger beer brewing companies, whose profits have been suffering for years due to the loss of market share to craft brews and the change in public opinion as to the quality of their product, have bought cider making companies. The company that ferments Bulmers in Ireland purchased Woodchuck Hard Cider in 2012.
There is great diversity of taste in the types of hard cider, made by small local producers all the way up to the big beer conglomerates, and great variation from region to region. Because the US allows brewing for personal use, instructions for making homebrew are readily available on the internet. According to a July 2014 article from a Chicago area newspaper, the city is taking advantage of its proximity to an area in Michigan that has national importance as a major apple growing region. A whole bar dedicated solely to new ciders in the city is up and running and consequentially Great Lakes producers are pressing more and more of the drink: in its first year, Michigan-based Virtue Cider pressed about 20,000 gallons of cider, or 75,708 liters, selling it in Chicago and other markets. In 2013, it pressed about 120,000 gallons (454,249 liters), and for the year 2014 it expects to press more than 200,000 US gallons, or 757,082 liters.
(It is different in each Region there.)
BEST Authentic Stollen (German Christmas Bread)
- For the Dough:
- 1 cup lukewarm whole milk
- 3 teaspoons dry active yeast
- 1/2 cup granulated sugar
- 4 cups all-purpose flour
- 1 large egg
- 2 large egg yolks
- 3/4 cup unsalted butter (1 1/2 sticks) , at room temperature so it's very soft
- 2 teaspoons quality pure vanilla extract
- zest of one lemon
- 1 teaspoon salt
- 3/4 teaspoon ground cardamom
- 3/4 teaspoon ground mace (recommended but can substitute nutmeg)
- 1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon
- 8 ounces Homemade Marzipan/Almond Paste, divided in half (you can omit the marzipan if you prefer) or store-bought marzipan/almond paste
- For the Fruits & Nuts:
- 9 ounces raisins
- 3 ounces candied lemon peel , finely diced
- 3 ounces candied orange peel , finely diced
- Homemade Candied Citrus Peel (we VERY STRONGLY recommend using homemade, it makes ALL the difference!)
- 3 ounces blanched slivered or sliced almonds , finely chopped
- 1/3 cup quality dark rum
- For the Glaze & Dusting:
- 1 stick unsalted butter , melted
- powdered sugar for generous dusting
Place the raisins, candied citrus peel and almonds in a medium bowl and pour the rum over it. Stir to combine. Set aside and let the fruit mixture soak in the rum while the dough rises.
Stir the yeast and 2 tablespoons of the sugar into the lukewarm milk and let sit in a warm place for 10-15 minutes until very frothy.
Place the flour, remaining sugar, egg, egg yolks, butter, vanilla extract, lemon zest, salt, cardamom, mace and cinnamon in the bowl of a stand mixer fitted with a dough hook. Add the yeast/milk mixture. Use a spoon to stir the mixture until it comes together. Knead the dough on the bread setting for 7-8 minutes. Remove the dough ball, lightly spray the bowl with a little oil, return the dough ball, cover loosely with plastic wrap and place it in a warm place or lightly warmed oven (just barely warm), to rise until nearly doubled in size, at least 1 hour.
Punch down the dough and add the soaked fruit/nut mixture to the dough (it should have absorbed all the rum by now but if there is excess liquid, pour it out before adding the mixture to the dough). Using the dough hook, knead the fruit/nut mixture into the dough until combined. If the dough is too wet to handle, add a little bit of flour until the dough pulls away from the sides of the bowl.
Turn the dough out onto a floured work surface and cut it in two equal halves. Press or roll each piece into an oval to about 1 inch thickness. Roll each piece of marzipan into a log the length of the oval. Press the marzipan gently into the middle of the dough. Fold the left side of the dough over to cover the marzipan, then fold right side over on top of the left side so that the edge of it sits just left of the middle of the stollen (see pics). In other words, don't fold the right side all the way over to the left edge of the stollen. Pinch and tuck the top and bottom ends of the stollen to cover the marzipan. Use the bottom edge of your hand to press down along the length of the stollen towards the right of the center to create a divot and characteristic hump (see pics). Place the stollen on a lined baking sheet. Cover the stollen loosely with plastic wrap and let them rest in a warm place or lightly warmed oven for 40-60 minutes until puffy. At that point you can pick off any raisins that are sticking out of the dough (they will burn during baking).
Towards the end of the last rise, preheat the oven to 350 degrees F and bake the stollen for 30-40 minutes or until golden. You can use an instant read thermometer to aim for an internal temperature of 190 degrees F. Let the Stollen sit for 5 minutes, then use a toothpick to poke holes all over the stollen (this will allow the butter to seep in), then generously brush the stollen with the melted butter while the stollen are still warm. Immediately sprinkle with a generous amount of powdered sugar, rubbing it into the creases and down the sides. Let the stollen cool completely.
The stollen can be sliced and eaten now or wrapped tightly (I like to wrap in plastic wrap then foil) and left to "ripen" in a cool place for 2 weeks. The liquid from the dried fruits will further penetrate the dough for more flavor and moisture. Stollen can also be frozen for longer storage.
Makes 2 large or 3 medium Stollen.
A History of Stollen
The first and most famous variety of stollen is the Dresdner Christstollen. Some historians date its origin back to 1329 and over the centuries the stollen was refined to become what it is today. And it has come a long way indeed because up until 1650 the stollen was a bland, hard pastry as the use of butter and milk was forbidden during Lent by the Catholic church. It was in this year that Prince Ernst von Sachsen, at the request of the bakers of Dresden, petitioned the pope to lift the butter ban. The request was denied and then, five popes later, the ban was finally lifted in 1490 via the pope’s famous Butterbrief, “butter letter.”
From that point the stollen gradually developed into an enjoyable sweet bread incorporating additional ingredients and it become an important symbol of the region. King August II in 1730 commissioned the bakers of Dresden to bake a gigantic stollen in celebration of the strength of the Saxon military, an event to which he invited the dignitaries of Europe in the hope of building allies. The stollen weighed 1.8 tons (that’s 3600 pounds!), was 27 feet long and 18 feet wide and a special oven was designed and built just for this purpose. It took a convoy of eight horses to transport the stollen to the king’s table and a 26 pound and 5 1/4 foot-long knife was used to cut it.
Germany’s first Christmas market was held in Dresden in 1434. This market, the Dresdner Striezelmarkt, continues to be held every year. Also held annually on the Saturday prior to the 2nd Advent is the Dresdner Stollenfest featuring Germany’s largest Christstollen. So far 2013 holds the record for the largest Stollen weighing nearly 9400 pounds! Each year a horse-drawn carriage parades the giant stollen through the streets and on to the Christmas market. Per tradition, a replica of the original 5-foot long knife is used to slice the stollen. The mayor of the city tastes the first piece and the stollen is then cut into thousands of pieces that are sold with the proceeds going to charity.