Wine Areas of the World
Explanations on where these Classic Areas are to be found, and what is the Specialty of these Country´s and Site´s.
Amarone della Valpolicella is an intensely flavored dry red wine made from dried (passito) grapes. It is made in the Veneto region of northeastern Italy, and is one of the region's most prestigious red wines. Though Amarone wines from the Classico zone in particular are often described as the pinnacle, there are many top producers operating outside the Classico zone, with Romano dal Forno probably the best known.
Fleurie is a well known Cru Beaujolais wine appellation for red wines from the Gamay grape variety. The wines are some of the most highly regarded in the region, which is sometimes referred to as "The Queen of Beaujolais".
A Fleurie is typically light, silky and supple, with characteristic florality and bright aromas of blueberries and red fruit. Fleurie's widespread recognition is often attributed to its evocative name. However the region is actually named after a Roman general, Floricum, rather than for any floral traits in the wine.
Fleurie is in the center of the ten Beaujolais crus. It lies just south of Moulin-à-Vent and Chénas and to the north of Morgon. Chiroubles lies just to the west.
The area's vineyards sit on the western side of the Beaujolais hills, on south and southeast facing slopes overlooking the Saone River valley. The vines benefit from exposure to warm morning sunshine during the growing season.
Fleurie vineyards are generally planted on pink granite soil. But variations in textures and additional soil components gives rise to different styles of wine.
On the higher slopes within the appellation, the soils are made up of coarse, dry sand. This absorbs and reflects heat, aiding the ripening process. Wines produced from these vineyards are known for their delicate aromas. Perhaps the best known example is La Madone, which overlooks village of Fleurie. The much photographed chapel from which it takes its name sits at the top of the plot.
Vineyards lower down the slopes tend to have a higher proportion of water-retaining clay. This gives wines from these sites a slightly denser, more-structured style of wine.
Fleurie's vineyards enjoy a temperate continental climate, and are shielded from cold northwesterly weather systems by the hills to the west of the Beaujolais region. Instead, the region's high sunshine hours are cooled by gentle influences from the Mediterranean Sea in the south. This ensures that ripening is slow and steady, leading to a balance of acidity and flavor in the grapes.
Vines were planted here in the early Middle Ages by Benedictine monks, and vineyards were expanded in the 15th Century by the Lyonnais bourgeoisie. Fleurie wines were widely distributed in France and England in the 19th Century, and the commune was granted its AOC in the 1930s, along with seven other areas in northern Beaujolais.
Around 180 growers are active today in the Fleurie appellation. Many of them contribute to Beaujolais' oldest wine co-operative, La Cave des Producteurs des Grands Vins de Fleurie, which was established in 1927.
In the “South/West” part
South/East of “Valparaiso”
Casablanca Valley is a wine-growing region of Chile, located 100 kilometers (60 miles) north-west of the country's capital, Santiago. The east-west-oriented valley is roughly 30km (20 miles) long, stretching to the eastern border of the Valparaiso province. It is best known for its crisp white wines, most notably made from the Sauvignon Blanc and Chardonnay grape varieties which have gained it recognition as one of Chile's quality wine regions. It has attracted considerable investment from wine companies based in other Chilean regions who were looking to boost their white wine portfolio, and from abroad. Pinot Noir, which is responsive to the cooler climates found in this coastal area, is also grown with some success.
The region is relatively new by Chilean standards. Casablanca Valley's first vineyards were planted in the 1980s during the revitalization of the Chilean wine industry. Expansion of vineyards around the industrial town of Casablanca followed, and vines now dominate the valley's landscape, even if a lack of water for irrigation (and restrictive local laws relating to this) have delayed vineyard planting.
Because it is only 30km (20 miles) from the Pacific Ocean at its furthest point, Casablanca Valley is strongly influenced by the cooling effects of the Humboldt Current, which flows up the west coast of Chile from the Antarctic. Cooling afternoon breezes blow from the ocean towards the mountains in the east, filling the vacuum created by warm air rising in the east. The reverse winds in the evening, however, are not sufficiently strong to provide a cool finish to Casablanca days.
In the “North/East” part
The Champagne wine region (archaic English: Champany) is a wine region within the historical province of Champagne in the northeast of France. The area is best known for the production of the sparkling white wine that bears the region's name. EU law and the laws of most countries reserve the term "Champagne" exclusively for wines that come from this region located about 100 miles (160 km) east of Paris. The viticultural boundaries of Champagne are legally defined and split into five wine producing districts within the historical province: Aube, Côte des Blancs, Côte de Sézanne, Montagne de Reims, and Vallée de la Marne. The towns of Reims and Épernay are the commercial centers of the area. Reims is famous for its cathedral, the venue of the coronation of the French Kings and a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Located at the northern edges of France, the history of the Champagne wine region has had a significant role in the development of this unique terroir. The area's proximity to Paris promoted the region's economic success in its wine trade but also put the villages and vineyards in the path of marching armies on their way to the French capital. Despite the frequency of these military conflicts, the region developed a reputation for quality wine production in the early Middle Ages and was able to continue that reputation as the region's producers began making sparkling wine with the advent of the great Champagne houses in the 17th and 18th centuries. The principal grapes grown in the region include Chardonnay, Pinot noir, and Pinot Meunier. Pinot noir is the most widely planted grape in the Aube region and grows very well in Montagne de Reims. Pinot Meunier is the dominant grape in the Vallée de la Marne region. The Côte des Blancs is dedicated almost exclusively to Chardonnay.
In The “Côte de Beaune” district
Chassagne-Montrachet wine is produced in the communes of Chassagne-Montrachet and Remigny in Côte de Beaune of Burgundy. The Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) Chassagne-Montrachet may be used for white wine and red with respectively Chardonnay and Pinot noir as the main grape variety. The production consists of around two-thirds of white wine and one-third of red wine, which is produced primarily in the southern part of the commune, in the direction of Santenay. There are three Grand Cru vineyards within Chassagne-Montrachet, with Montrachet the most well-known, and 50 Premier Cru vineyards.
In 2008, there was 301.43 hectares (744.8 acres) of vineyard surface in production for Chassagne-Montrachet wine at village and Premier Cru level, and 15,660 hectoliter of wine was produced, of which 10,398 hectoliter white wine and 5,262 hectoliter red wine. Some 121.21 hectares (299.5 acres) of this area was used for the red wines in 2007. The amount produced corresponds to almost 2.1 million bottles, almost 1.4 million bottles of white wine and 700.000 bottles of red wine.
For white wines, the AOC regulations allow both Chardonnay and Pinot blanc to be used, but most wines are 100% Chardonnay. The AOC regulations also allow up to 15 per cent total of Chardonnay, Pinot blanc and Pinot gris as accessory grapes in the red wines, but this not very often practiced. The allowed base yield is 40 hectoliter per hectare of red wine and 45 hectoliter per hectare for white wine. The grapes must reach a maturity of at least 10.5 per cent potential alcohol for village-level red wine, 11.0 per cent for village-level white wine and Premier Cru red wine, and 11.5 per cent for Premier Cru white wine.
The style of white Chassagne-Montrachet is often both fruity and mineral, with the level of oak varying between producers.
In the Region of Marlborough
Marlborough put New Zealand on the international wine stage with its exquisite Sauvignon Blanc in the 1980s.
Over 20,000ha of vines (around 2/3 of the national total) are under the care of local wine producers, making it the country's largest wine region.
Marlborough wineries offer a huge range of varieties, from exquisite Pinot Noir to intense Chardonnay, and vivacious aromatics.
The diverse soils and meso-climates are revealing exciting new sub-regions, and it is within these unique sub-regions that Marlborough’s future lies.
Around the South-Coast
It is a Nice Dessert Wine
Constantia wyn (wine) is a South African dessert wine. It is made from Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains (Muscat de Frontignan) grapes grown in the district of Constantia, south of Cape Town. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries it was widely exported to Europe. However, production of Constantia ceased in the late nineteenth century following the devastation of South African vineyards by the phylloxera epidemic. Production resumed at Klein Constantia in 1986, at Groot Constantia in 2003 and at Buitenverwachting in 2007.
In the Region of “South Australia”
Coonawarra is the home of Australia’s best Cabernet Sauvignon.
It is a reputation that has been earned over more than 120 years, by grape growers carefully nurturing its ancient terra rossa soils and winemakers patiently ageing their wines in historic cellars.
This commitment to quality without compromise, from generation to generation, has made Coonawarra what it is.
For great wine regions and great wines, take time.
Here, it is Also called:
”The Land Between two Seas”.
Entre-deux-Mers is a large wine sub-region of Bordeaux in southwestern France. Its name translates literally as "between two seas", although the seas in question are in fact rivers – the Garonne and Dordogne, which respectively form the area's southern and northern boundaries.
Entre-deux-Mers is home to various appellations, which produce wines in styles ranging from the sweet botrytized whites of Cadillac, Loupiac and Sainte-Croix-du-Mont – all close to the northeast bank of the Garonne – to the dry table wines of Sainte-Foy and Graves de Vayres, closer to the Dordogne. The extended region along the Garonne, from the cluster of sweet white appellations as far as the area to the east of Bordeaux city, is the red wine appellation Côtes de Bordeaux – until 2009 called Premières Côtes de Bordeaux, a title now reserved for sweet whites.
Appellations in this region can certainly be tough to learn; Entre-Deux-Mers Haut-Benauge is for both sweet and dry whites, while within the same zone Bordeaux Haut-Benauge can be used only for dry wines. The regional Entre-deux-Mers appellation title itself applies uniquely to dry white wines made from Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, Muscadelle and Ugni Blanc. However, the majority of wine produced within the boundaries of the AOC Entre-Deux-Mers is instead labeled as generic Bordeaux or as Bordeaux Supérieur.
Entre-deux-Mers occupies a substantial slice of the Bordeaux region, stretching from the city in the west almost all the way to the farmland outside Bergerac in the east. The landscape is mostly fertile and green, rolling gently between 33 and 330ft (10–100m) above sea level. However, vineyards have replaced some of the green landscape, with large patches of land being rapidly turned over to viticulture. The soils here are predominantly of alluvial type (sand and clay in varying proportions) from the two rivers.
Many winegrowers in the region uprooted their white grape varieties in the mid-20th Century, replacing them with more popular (and commercially viable) red varieties; primarily Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon. However in recent years white wines have been making a comeback, due to modernized winemaking and the demand for crisp dry whites. The wines produced here are generally increasing in quality, but do not match those from areas such as Pomerol or the Haut-Médoc.
From the Region of “Lombardy”
Franciacorta is a small wine-producing area in Lombardy, northern Italy. It is famous for its high-quality sparkling wines, which are made very much in the image of Champagne. The Franciacorta wine region is located in the Brescia province, in the hills immediately south-east of the foot of Lake Iseo. Roughly square in shape, it stretches eastwards for 15 miles (25km) from the Oglio River (which flows out from the lake) until reaching the Mella River valley and the western suburbs of Brescia city.
Although relatively unknown in global terms, Franciacorta is widely regarded as Italy's finest sparkling wine. Due respect is still paid to the traditional and better-known classics Moscato d'Asti and Prosecco, but these lighter-hearted styles are aimed at straightforward enjoyment rather than complexity or finesse.
As a high-quality sparkling wine made in the Méthode Champenoise from Chardonnay and Pinot Noir (with limited amounts of Pinot Blanc), Franciacorta is clearly Italy's answer to Champagne. The wine comes in both non-vintage and vintage forms, and the standard white is complemented by a rosé version (for which the base wine must be at least 25% Pinot Noir). There is even a blanc de blancs equivalent called Franciacorta Satèn, made exclusively from Chardonnay and Pinot Bianco. Tasting notes for Franciacorta Brut wines sound remarkably like those of their Champagne equivalents, with frequent references to biscuit, brioche, lemon and lees.
in the Mosel Region.
in the Commune of Brauneberg.
Weingut Fritz Haag sits in the heart of the Middle Mosel and holds a proud spot in that region's long history. The first documented mention of the estate came in 1605, at a time when the town was known as Dusemond. To better invoke the stellar reputation of the world-famous "Brauneberger Juffer" and "Brauneberger Juffer Sonnenuhr" — which Napoleon himself had considered pearls of the Mosel region — the town renamed itself in 1925 from Dusemond to Brauneberg. Weingut Fritz Haag, now helmed by Oliver Haag, still honors this tradition through its supplemental designation “Dusemonder Hof."
Sacramento, Central Valley
Lodi AVA was designated an American Viticultural Area in 1986. Located in the Central Valley of California, at the northern edge of the San Joaquin Valley just 90 minutes from San Francisco and 60 minutes from Napa, Lodi enjoys a similar climate and growing conditions to its coastal neighbors. You may be surprised to find out that Lodi produces more wine than Napa and Sonoma combined.
The AVA has over 100,000 acres planted with wine grapes at this time and growing. Lodi has been a mainstay of California grape and wine production for well over 100 years. Recently a wave of smaller boutique producers have taken focus to defining the clear potential of single vineyard expressions from the appellation. In addition to having some of the oldest Zinfandel vines in the U.S., other grapes are now flourishing which include Petite Sirah, Cabernet Franc, Viognier, Graciano, Tempranillo, Albariño. Some growers are even looking at how Riesling would grow in some of the cooler spots.
In The “Center/West
Marsala wine is a fortified wine made in Sicily. Marsala is most commonly used in cooking to create nutty, rich caramelized sauces. It’s an amazing addition to the chef’s kitchen.
By the way, if you find a bottle that’s not from Sicily, it should not be trusted!
Riverina is an Australian Geographical Indication registered in the Register of Protected GIs as a wine region. The Riverina AGI is centred on Griffith and is roughly circular with towns on the boundary including Mossgiel, Condobolin, Temora, Junee, Culcairn, Berrigan, Finley, Deniliquin and Moulamein.
Left bank of the “Garonne-River”
Sauternes is a French sweet wine from the Sauternais region of the Graves section in Bordeaux. Sauternes is made from Sémillon, Sauvignon blanc, and Muscadelle grapes that have been affected by Botrytis cinerea, also known as noble rot. This causes the grapes to become partially raisined, resulting in concentrated and distinctively flavored wines. Due to its climate, Sauternes is one of the few wine regions where infection with noble rot is a frequent occurrence. Even so, production is a hit-or-miss proposition, with widely varying harvests from vintage to vintage. Wines from Sauternes, especially the Premier Cru Supérieur estate Château d'Yquem, can be very expensive, largely due to the very high cost of production. Barsac lies within Sauternes and is entitled to use either name. Somewhat similar but less expensive and typically less-distinguished wines are produced in the neighboring regions of Monbazillac, Cérons, Loupiac and Cadillac. In the United States, there is a semi-generic label for sweet white dessert wines known as sauterne without the "s" at the end and uncapitalized.
Established in 1959, the Segura Viudas (pronounced she-GUR-a vi-YOU-das) winery and vineyards are in the heart of the Penedès wine region in Torrelavit, just outside of Barcelona.
The Segura Viudas winery is housed in original buildings, some of which date back to the 11th Century. Originally built as a military watch tower, the buildings were converted into a traditional Catalonian country farm house during the 13th Century.
At the end of the 19th Century, various Spanish indigenous grape varieties began to flourish in vineyards surrounding the property and were noted for their winemaking potential, especially to make traditional method sparkling wines known as cava. In the early 1980's the estate of 445 acres known for its high quality cavas and still wines was purchased by the family owned Freixenet Group.
Segura Viudas is an artisanal winery that provides itself on honouring the craft and following an uncompromising path to quality. Grapes are handpicked and only the first pressings used. Cava is bottled with unique yeasts created in the winery and wines are rested for that little bit longer in the long cool cellars at the winery.
In the “Coastal-Region”
When you’re visiting Cape Town, South Africa, you absolutely should not miss a side trip to visit some Stellenbosch wineries. This lovely region is just a little over an hour away by car from Cape Town, and it’s one of the best wine tasting trips you can take. As you approach the Stellenbosch Valley, you’ll understand why it’s so important to go there, and if you’ve never tasted Pinotage wines, you’re in for a serious treat.
Even if you’re not a wine person, the beauty of this area will stun you. There are palatial wine estates all over the area, along with rolling hills covered with Stellenbosch vineyards. It is part of the experience to cozy up in the tasting room on an overstuffed couch, or even outside on the welcoming patio, with a bottle of wine and spend the afternoon enjoying the wine and the views. They aren’t going to rush you out, or make you stand at the tasting counter, quickly sipping sample after sample that you won’t remember later.
Bodegas Vega Sicilia is a Spanish winery located in the Ribera del Duero Denominación de Origen in the Province of Valladolid, Castile and León (northern Spain). The winery was founded in 1864 by Don Eloy Lecanda y Chaves, who planted various grapes from the Bordeaux wine region of France, including Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, which are still being used in the wines today.
Since 1982, the same year that the Ribera del Duero was granted Denominación de Origen (DO) status, the winery has been owned by the Álvarez family who are members of the Primum Familiae Vini.
In comparing the wines of Spain to the First Growth wines of Bordeaux, wine expert Hugh Johnson, after comparing Rioja producers Marqués de Riscal and Marqués de Murrieta to Château Lafite Rothschild and Château Mouton Rothschild, respectively, stated: "Vega Sicilia is the Latour; but Latour of a vintage that has raisined the grapes and fried the picking crews."—a reference to the significantly warmer climate and different growing conditions of the Ribera del Duero.
Vega Sicilia's wines are recognised worldwide as some of the finest and most valued red wines on the market, with its top wine selling for an average of $388 per bottle.
In the Town of Reims
Veuve Clicquot Ponsardin (French pronunciation: [vœv kliko pɔ̃saʁdɛ̃]) is a French Champagne house based in Reims, specializing in premium products. It was founded in 1772 by Philippe Clicquot and is one of the largest champagne houses in the world. Madame Clicquot is credited with major breakthroughs, creating the first known vintage champagne in 1810, and inventing the riddling table process to clarify champagne in 1816. In 1818, she invented the first known blended rosé champagne by blending still red and white champagne wines. This process is still used today by the majority of champagne producers.
During the Napoleonic Wars, Madame Clicquot made strides in establishing her wine in royal courts throughout Europe, notably that of Imperial Russia. She played an important role in establishing champagne as a favored drink of high society and nobility throughout Europe.
The house has borne its distinctive yellow label since the late 19th century.
It´s made by The Grape “Sangiovese”
Vino Nobile di Montepulciano is a red wine with a Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita status produced in the vineyards surrounding the town of Montepulciano, Italy. The wine is made primarily from the Sangiovese grape varietal (known locally as Prugnolo gentile) (minimum 70%), blended with Canaiolo Nero (10%–20%) and small amounts of other local varieties such as Mammolo. The wine is aged for 2 years (at least 1 year in oak barrels); three years if it is a riserva. The wine should not be confused with Montepulciano d'Abruzzo, a red wine made from the Montepulciano grape in the Abruzzo region of east-central Italy.
In a document dated 789, quoted by Emanuele Repetti in "Dizionario Geografico Fisico Storico della Toscana", the cleric Arnipert offers to the Church of San Silvestro in Lanciniano (Amiata area), farmland and a vineyard located in the Castello di Policiano; another document of 17 October 1350, also mentioned by Repetti, lays down the terms for trade and export of a wine produced in the Montepulciano area.
In 1685 Vino Nobile di Montepulciano is also mentioned by the poet Francesco Redi, who, in addition to praising the work of Bacchus in Tuscany (Montepulciano is the king of all wines!), wrote an ode to Count Federico Veterani dedicated exclusively to praise of the qualities of this wine.
The name Vino Nobile di Montepulciano was invented by Adamo Fanetti. Until 1930 and beyond, the wine was officially called "Vino rosso scelto di Montepulciano," but Adamo called his wine “nobile” (noble). In 1925, Adamo Fanetti produced about 30 tons of Nobile, all bottled and sold for two ITLire a bottle. It was greatly appreciated. Its increased success was seen at the first trade show of wine held in Siena in 1931, organized by Ente Mostra-Mercato Nazionale dei Vini Tipici e Pregiati, when Mr. Tancredi Biondi-Santi, a friend and admirer of Adamo Fanetti, said prophetically: "this wine will have a future. Fanetti must be considered the first producer of Vino Nobile di Montepulciano. 'Cantine Fanetti' has promoted Vino Nobile di Montepulciano all over the world in the years following World War I, and in the years of the "economic miracle" after World War II. Other companies, which until that date had produced mostly Chianti, followed Adamo's example and in 1937 founded a 'Cantina Sociale' (Vecchia Cantina di Montepulciano) with the intention of creating a structure for the marketing of wine produced even by small farmers.
The wine produced in Montepulciano continued to be appreciated, and over time it obtained the DOC Denominazione di Origine Controllata (Denomination of Controlled Origin) with DPR July 12, 1966. The DOCG Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (Denomination of Controlled and Guaranteed Origin) of Vino Nobile di Montepulciano was authorized by DPR July 1, 1980 and modified by DM July 27, 1999.
On the “West Coast” of the Country
Willamette Valley Vineyards is an American winery located in Turner, Oregon. Named after Oregon's Willamette Valley, the winery is one of the leading producers of Pinot noir in Oregon, and also produces Dijon clone Chardonnay and Pinot gris. In 2016, the winery was the largest producer of Riesling wine in the Willamette Valley.
The “budwood” of Willamette Valley Vineyards began long before its founding in 1983 by vintner Jim Bernau. His Dad, a Roseburg lawyer, was hired by a California winemaker to secure the first winery license in Oregon since Prohibition. Jim’s Dad allowed small tastes of Richard Sommer’s wine at the dinner table, lighting a path that led Jim from home winemaking to studies at UC Davis and eventually Beaune, France.